This website is meant for all those who are interested in the ancient European stick and ball games jeu de crosse (choule), colf/kolf, jeu de mail (pall mall) and their relation to the ancient Scottish game of golf.
On this website papers about ancient golf and kindred games, including non-related stick and ball games, are and will be included and reproduced unabridged in the language they were originally written and published in

Geert & Sara Nijs, sport historians, have specialised in the history of these games and edited several books.

Feel free to use any information from this website but please let know why, when and where you will use it.
As far as publications, photographs and illustrations are concerned check beforehand if they are free to use.

If you have questions, remarks or if you want to order a book please leave a message (


Version 3.001 - Latest addition 15 April 2021
Webdesign Rien Valk - Webmaster Sara Nijs