This website is meant for all those who are interested in the ancient European stick and ball games jeu de crosse (choule), colf/kolf, jeu de mail (pall mall) and their relation to the ancient Scottish game of golf.
On this website papers about ancient golf and kindred games, including non-related stick and ball games, are and will be included and reproduced unabridged in the language they were originally written and published in. Translations are regrettable not available.
Geert & Sara Nijs, sport historians, have specialised in the history of these games.
The authors are members of the European Association of Golf Historians and Collectors (EAGHC), the British Golf Collectors Society (BGCS), the Golf Collectors Society (GCS),
the Association Patrimoniale du Golf Franšais (APGF) and supporters of the Early Golf Foundation.
Interested in the history of these games? Why don't you become a member of the EAGHC? Please do contact us.
Feel free to use any information from this website but please tell us why, when and where you will use it.
As far as publications, photographs and illustrations are concerned check beforehand if they are free to use.

If you have questions, remarks or if you want to order a book please contact us at


Version 2.128 - Latest addition 21 June 2019
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